"Climate is what we expect, weather is what we get (Heinlein, 1973)."

Friday, 1 July 2011

Ocean One: Atmosfer dan lautan Indonesia

Ocean One: Atmosfer dan lautan Indonesia

Atmosfer dan lautan Indonesia

Kita mengetahui bagaimana cuaca di Indonesia sangat berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan di dalamnya, segala kejadian yang terjadi di atmosfer akan berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan di bawahnya. Pada kasus ini kita berbicara tentanga pengaruh atmosfer terhadap laut khususnya di Indonesia. Sebelum itu kita perlu mengetahui apa itu atmosfer? Atmosfer adalah lapisan gas yang melingkupi sebuah planet, termasuk bumi, dari permukaan planet tersebut sampai jauh di luar angkasa. Gas-gas penyusun atmosfer tidak dapat lepas (meninggalkan) dari bumi karena pengaruh gaya gravitasi bumi. Karena massa gas-Tautangas tersehut tidak sama, pengaruh gaya gravitasi terhadap gas-gas dalam atmosfer juga tidak sama. Akibatnya, distribusi gas-gas dalam lltlxosfer juga tidak sama. Gas yang mempunyai massa besar banyak terdistribusi dekat permukaan bumi, scdangkan gas ringan banyak terdistribusi jauh dari permukaan bumi. Karena tebalnya (tingginya) lapisan atmosfer, suhu tiap bagian atmosfer menjadi tidak sama. Berdasarkan kenyataan ini. kita dapat membagi atnrosfer menjadi beberapa lapisan.
baca http://blogs.unpad.ac.id/myawaludin untuk lebih lengkap

Tuesday, 8 June 2010

Ocean Day

As a result of a United Nations General Assembly resolution passed in December 2008, World Oceans Day is now officially recognized by the UN as June 8th each year.

The concept for a “World Ocean Day” was first proposed in 1992 by the Government of Canada at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, and it had been unofficially celebrated every year since then. Since 2002, The Ocean Project and the World Ocean Network have helped to promote and coordinate World Oceans Day events worldwide. We help coordinate events and activities with aquariums, zoos, museums, conservation organizations, universities, schools, and businesses. Each year an increasing number of countries and organizations have been marking June 8th as an opportunity to celebrate our world ocean and our personal connection to the sea.

Together, we also developed and widely circulated a petition to the United Nations urging them to officially recognize World Oceans Day. With help from our Partner organizations, tens of thousands of people from all parts of the world signed online or paper copies of the petition. Congratulations to all for helping to make this happen!

Designation of World Oceans Day provides an important boost to those organizations and individuals who have been deeply committed to ocean conservation. Official UN designation is another important step toward improving the health of our world's ocean.

Now we need to capitalize on this fresh momentum! We hope you will be involved in planning or participating in a World Oceans Day celebration near you!

Please visit the rest of the World Oceans Day website to list your event, get celebration ideas, access the media and outreach kit, and more.

Why Should I Celebrate World Oceans Day?

The world's ocean:

Generates most of the oxygen we breathe

Helps feed us

Regulates our climate

Cleans the water we drink

Offers us a pharmacopoeia of potential medicines

Provides limitless inspiration!

Now we can give back!

Take part in World Oceans Day events and activities this year and help protect our ocean for the future!

It's up to each one of us to help ensure that our ocean is protected and conserved for future generations. World Oceans Day allows us to:

Change perspective - encourage individuals to think about what the ocean means to them and what it has to offer all of us with hopes of conserving it for present and the future generations.

Learn - discover the wealth of diverse and beautiful ocean creatures and habitats, how our daily actions affect them, and how we are all interconnected.

Change our ways - we are all connected to the ocean! By taking care of your backyard, you are acting as a caretaker of our ocean. Making small modifications to your everyday habits will greatly benefit our blue planet.

Celebrate - whether you live inland or on the coast we are all connected to the ocean; take the time to think about how the ocean affects you, and how you affect the ocean, and then organize or participate in activities that celebrate our world ocean.


Monday, 7 June 2010

Indonesian drought, Kenyan flooding

by Chun Knee Tan on July 5, 2008

Keywords: climate systems, drought, El nino, flood, Indian Ocean Dipole, Indonesia, Kenya

When a drought occurs in Indonesia, there could be flooding later in Kenya. But what are the linkages between these two disasters?

The answer is a phenomenon discovered 10 years ago called Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD).

During normal conditions in the Indian Ocean, the sea surface temperature is warmer in the east and cooler in the west. When an Indian Ocean Dipole event occurs, the situation is reversed.

Cooling of the eastern part of the Indian Ocean results in less convection and less rain. Consequently, we see a longer drought in western Indonesia during the summer and fall.

Meanwhile, on the opposite side of the Indian Ocean, the abnormal warming results in enhanced cloud formation, more rain and serious flooding in eastern Africa. Current research has revealed that this IOD effect not only alters weather patterns in the surrounding region, but also influences the weather in Europe and East Asia.

When climate events collide

Sometimes, the Indian Ocean Dipole can occur together with El-Nino in the Pacific, causing extreme weather and disaster events. When this happened in 1997, there was serious drought and extensive forest fires in Indonesia and Malaysia.

The haze resulting from the fires spread for more than 3200 km, covering six southeast Asian countries, and causing serious health problems in the region. At the same time, giant red tides were triggered by the diople, leading to collapse of the marine ecosystem along a 400 km stretch of an archipelago in western Sumatra.

When the IOD and El-Nino combined again in 2006, the worst flooding in 50 years occured in the Horn of Africa, affecting 1.8 million people. The flooding was followed by outbreaks of cholera, malaria and Rift Valley Fever.

Understanding the dipole

Research on the diople effect is still at a preliminary stage. Scientists are investigating the mechanism, effects, and linkages with other phenomena. In 2006, Japanese scientists successfully predicted its occurrence in 2006 and 2007. This breakthrough brought a window of opportunity for the early detection and preparation for dealing with the extreme weather and disaster impacts attributed to the Indian Ocean Dipole.

In May of this year, the same Japanese scientists, as well as some other climate groups, predicted the IOD’s return in 2008.

Extreme weather, natural disasters and health problems during IOD in 2006

“As far as we know, there is no such occasion in the past 100 years when we have had three consecutive positive IODs. The decadal change in the ocean’s condition, under global warming stress, is an underlying factor for such frequent occurrences of IOD. This is similar to the “perpetual IOD”, which could have occurred several thousand years ago,” explained Dr. Toshio Yamagata and Dr. Swadhin Behera of the Tokyo-based Frontier Research Centre for Global Change to The Hindu Business Line. “I hope regional people have enough time to prepare for possible impacts the event may have on local weather.”

In 2008, cooling in southern Java started much earlier than usual. In mid-June, the Indian Meteorological Department announced that monsoon rain hit India early for the first time in more than a century. Some scientists warned that the current condition in the Indian Ocean is suitable to trigger the IOD, and it might already be happening.

The extreme weather conditions and disasters associated with IOD are a serious concern for all people and governments in the region. They can exacerbate existing health, social, economic and food security problems.

Early Indian Ocean Dipole warning and disaster preparation are crucially needed for the countries that might be affected. It is essential that the relevant agencies in each country monitor the latest prediction results and actual observation in order to make the necessary decisions.

For the latest predictions on Indian Ocean Dipole, please visit:

Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)

For other related climate predictions, please visit

APEC Climate Centre

Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

International Research Institute for Climate and Society

National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration

For more update on the IOD news and information, please visit the Marufish BLoG.


Special thanks to Prof. Yamagata, Dr. Behera, Dr. Luo, Dr. Saji and Mr. Tripathy.

source : http://www.jamstec.go.jp/frcgc/research/d1/iod/

Tuesday, 6 April 2010

Bermain dengan NOAA

Pada bagian pertama ini, kita akan melihat dan bermain-main dengan portal milik NOAA via http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/. Untuk melakukan pengolahan data melalui porta ini, dibutuhkan pengetahuan tentang jenis-jenis daat serta metode atau analisis yang dibutuhkan oleh pengguna. Setelah berada di link tersebut di atas, maka tinggal kita lanjutkan dengan menelusuri tab -product-plotting & analysis- sehingga sampailah kita pada halaman pengolahan data secara interaktif dalam media ini.

Ada banyak sekali kriteria yang terdapat pada halaman tersebut, mulai dari data dana analisa bulanan, analisis harian, hingga untuk indeks iklim pun teredia di dalamnya. Sebagai contoh saja, kita ambil data analisis bulanan dengan memilih 'monthly/seanonal composite'. Ketika kita telah memilih kategori tersebut, maka kita akan dibawa menuju halaman lain tentang pemilihan tipe data apa yang kita butuhkan. Lagi-lagi ada banyak data termasuk sumbernya tersedia disini, mulai dari 'Geopotential Heigh' hingga data klorofil-a, tentu saja dengan rentang waktu yang berbeda-beda pula tergantung kebutuhan kita data apa dan seberapa lama datanya.

Untuk kali ini kita ambil contoh 'NOAA Extended SST' karena kita ingin mengetahui pola sea surface temperature (SST) di daerah Indonesia dan Samudera Pasifik pada saat terjadi fenomena El-Nino tahun 1997-1998. Agar sesuai dengan kriteria tersebut, kita tinggal memilih rentang bulan Jan (Januari) hingga Dec (Desember), kemudian kita pilih rentang tahun dari 1997 hingga 1998. Setelah itu jangan lupa untuk memodifikasi plot gambar sesuai yang kita inginkan, semisal color atau black&white, kemudian ada pilihan rata-rata bulanan, anomali atau rata-rata dalam waktu panjang. Untuk kasus di atas kita ambil anomali untuk melihat berapa derajat perubahan suhunya pada waktu tersebut. Jangan lupa untuk mendefinisikan area yang akan kita analisis untuk contoh tersebut kita menggunakan area -15 S 15N; 60E 300E seperti gambar di atas.

Setelah smuanya dapat kita plot dengan baik, tinggal diasah bagaimana interpretasi kita terhadap gambar/hasil plot tersebut. Bisa juga kita kombinasikan dengan parameter lainnya. selamat bermain-main dengan NOAA.